A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment




Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE)

    · “Welcome to the world’s largest and most used source of climate adaptation case studies

       and resources. Share lessons, ideas, and opportunities with others in the field.”

Climate Change Response Framework

    · “...a collaborative effort that addresses the major challenges that land managers face when

       considering how to integrate climate change into their planning and management. The

       Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science (NIACS) leads the Climate Change Response

       Framework with support from many partners...Currently, the Framework is being applied in

       several locations in the eastern U.S. through coordinated place-based projects: 

       Central AppalachiansCentral HardwoodsMid-AtlanticNew EnglandNorthwoods, and 

       Urban Forests.”

    · Defunct ~ website appears abandoned


Climate Change Ecology

Climate Change Biology at PeerJ


Bibliography on climate change & its impacts on biodiversity (ASIL Wildlife Interest Group)

    · Last updated in 2000

Bibliography on climate change and botanic gardens [Australia]

Biodiversity bibliography: Ecology, economics & policy [click on “climate change”]

Institutions ~ International organizations     

United Nations

     Biodiversity - our strongest natural defense against climate change

Convention on Biological Diversity

     Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Biodiversity and Climate Change 


     Climate Change Specialist Group

     Integrated Planning for Climate Change & Biodiversity

Partners in Flight

    Climate impacts on landbirds

World Conservation Monitoring Center (UNEP)

     Climate change & biodiversity 

Institutions ~ US government

U.S. Department of Agriculture - Climate Change Resource Center 


    National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center

        Regional Climate Science Centers

National Fish, Wildlife & Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

Institutions ~ Research & professional associations

Institute for Climate Change Biology (IGCB) @ University of Michigan

Wildlife Society

     Climate Change

USA National Phenology Network

Yale Center for Biodiversity and Global Change 

Institutions ~ NGOs

   · Note that this is a very incomplete listing; many (maybe most) NGOs working on biodiversity

     conservation will have a programmatic focus related to the threat of climate change. While

     it will require some digging, more such NGOs will be available at (1) the Biodiversity-focused NGOs  

     section of the Biodiversity Institutions page and (2) the extensive NGOs page.  

Biodiversity Research Institute

     Climate Change Program

Biodiversity for a Livable Climate

Center for Biological Diversity

     Climate Law Institute

Conservation International

     Protecting nature to halt climate catastrophe

Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund

      CEPF & climate change


Land Trust Alliance (LTA)

     Conservation in a Changing Climate

Max Planck-Yale Center for Biodiversity Movement and Global Change

National Wildlife Federation

     Global Warming 

Les Sentinelles du Climat

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)

     Climate crisis

     Climate Adaptation Fund

World Wildlife Fund

      Climate Change

Conservation translo ations, managed translocation & assisted migrations

Assisted migration @ Forest Gene Conservation Association (FGCA)

Assisted migration @ USFS

Torreya Guardians


NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

     · “...identifies plant and animal species that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate


Select readings on climate change biology

     · In reverse chronological order.

Natural hybridization reduces vulnerability to climate change

     · 2023  ~  Chris J. Brauer  ~  Nature

     · Under climate change, species that cannot track their niche through range changes rely heavily on

       genetic variation to adapt.

     · Estimates environmental niche models and genomic vulnerability of related rainbow fish.

     · Adaptive infiltration helps in the evolutionary rescue of species with climate changes.

Drivers of Biodiversity Loss: Climate Change

     · 2022  ~  Lindsay Rosa  ~  Defenders of Wildlife

     · Climate change is fundamentally changing the ecosystems inhabited by many endangered species

     · About 1 million species are at risk of extinction

     · Comprehensive national biodiversity strategy can help safeguard the natural resources

Explainer: Can climate change and biodiversity loss be tackled together

     · 2022  ~  Daisy Dunne  ~  Carbon Brief

     · Climate change and biodiversity loss are already reinforcing each other

     · Man-made climate change is already affecting the severity of extreme events

     · The loss of biodiversity around the world is also having a major impact on humanity.

Insects and recent climate change

     · 2021  ~  Christopher A. Halsch, et al. ~  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)

     · Discusses how insects respond to climate change and fluctuations, including summarizing past

       long-term monitoring literature and discussing how climate change will have considerable impacts

       in the future in more powerful ways than habitat loss.

     · Provides a case study of butterflies in Northern California that were not threatened by habitat loss to

       reinforce that insect population declines from climate change is alarming, even in the absence of

       habitat loss.  

     · Suggests how the methods for collecting insect-related data could be improved for long-term datasets

     so that the impact of climate change on insects can be more effectively studied.

Spotlighting Interactions of the Science of Biodiversity and Climate Change

     · 2020  ~  Hans-Otto Pörtner  ~  IPBES-IPCC Co-sponsored workshop

     · Focuses on opportunities to meet climate change and biodiversity-related targets.

     · Spotlights synergies and trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and climate change

       mitigation and adaptation

     · Climate change is already impacting nature – from genes to ecosystems

Microclimate shifts in a dynamic world  

     · 2020 ~ Jonas J. Lembrechts, Ivan Nijs ~ University of Antwerp

     · “A better understanding of microclimate change is standing at the crossroads of the climate and

       the biodiversity crisis and is fundamental to tackling of both"

     · Uses understory microclimate dynamic models to demonstrate that macroclimate changes,

       especially those from climate change, do not always drive the ecology of Earth's biodiversity.

Climate Change and Ecosystems: Threats, Opportunities, and Solutions

     · 2020 ~ Yadvinder Malhi ~ The Royal Society

     · Threats:  Climate change is causing changes in natural ecosystems, thus, threatening biodiversity,

       and global food production.

     · Opportunities: Protecting climate refugia can provide many conservation benefits while also being

       a relatively low-cost conservation strategy.

     · Solutions: Nature-based strategies that can mitigate climate change hazards: (a) Enhanced vegetation

       cover and green space, (b) Construction of structures that restore natural hydrologic function,

       (c) Restoring natural protective habitats along coastlines.

We need more realistic climate change experiments for understanding ecosystems of the future

     · 2019 ~ Lotte Korell ~ Global Change Biology

    · Experiments regarding manipulating climate change conditions in accordance with future projections,

       which include precipitation and temperature, are imperative in understanding and predicting the effects

       of climate change on ecosystems and plant communities.

     · Features necessary to accurately predict the effect of climate ecosystems: (a) Small-scale experiments

       need to consider species that can respond to climate change and the influence of dispersal limitations,

       (b) Account for scale-dependent responses when comparing responses among communities. (c) Experimental

       approaches, such as measurement of demography across the life cycles of plants.

The International Movement to Protect Half the World

     · Subtitle: Origins, Scientific Foundations, and Policy Implications

     · 2018 ~ Harvey Locke ~ Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative

     · Explores the Nature Needs Half or Half Earth movement to reverse global declines of species and


     · “Though grounded in ecology, it is an effort to set an inspiring social goal justified by conservation

       science as opposed to simply providing scientific findings and predictions in the hope that they might

       be useful to makers of public policy.”

Impacts of climate on the biodiversity-productivity relationship in natural forests

     · 2018  ~  Songlin Fei  ~  Nature

     · Highlights the relationship between biodiversity and productivity through the biodiversity-

       productivity relationship (BPR)

     · Climate change is a potential determinant of the contrast BPR observed over a large spatial scale

     · Both biotic factors and abiotic factors impact BPRs

Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

     · 2014 ~ Scott P. Carroll, et al. ~ University of California Davis

     · Human induced climate change affects the rate and direction of evolution which threaten human health, food security, and biodiversity.

     · Highlights the progress and gaps in genetic, developmental, and environmental manipulations

       that focus on the rate and direction of evolution or reduce the disconnect between organisms and human-altered environments.

     · “Applied evolutionary biology has the potential to serve society as a predictive and integrative

       framework for addressing practical concerns in applied biology that share at their core the basic evolutionary principles governing life.”

A framework for community interactions under climate change

     · 2010 ~ Sarah E. Gilman, Mark C. Urban, Joshua Tewksbury, George W. Gilchrist, Robert D. Holt

     · Claremont Colleges

     · Analyzes the impact of species interactions in different types of communities and explain how

       those interactions can help or harm the community's efforts to adapt to climate change.

     · Biodiversity is inextricably linked to adaptability as having more species in an ecosystem

        allows for more variability of ranges of tolerance and the availability of far more niches

        than a community with little diversity.

Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms and Ecosystems

     · 2009  ~  Andrew S. Brierley and Michael J. Kingsford  ~  Current Biology

     · Highlights the importance of the ocean and marine ecosystems and the necessity of intervening to

       reduce carbon emissions before critical tipping points are passed, leading to ecosystem decline.

     · Suggests that while bioengineering may provide some alleviation, there are risks, and the primary

       way to protect these ecosystems is to stop climate change.

     · Discusses current effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and processes, including ocean

       acidification, reduced oxygen concentration, and sea-level rise.

     · Predicts both future effects as well as how these ecosystems can help mitigate climate change impacts.

Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations

     · 2009 ~ Nicole E. Heller, Erika S. Zavaleta ~ University of California

     · Reviews over 500 policy recommendations from over 100 publications

     · Explains potential solutions to declining biodiversity as a result of climate change and how effective each of these solutions are.

     · “Broadly, adap tation requires improved regional institutional coordination, expanded spatial

        and temporal perspective, incorporation of climate change scenarios into all planning and

        action, and greater effort to address multiple threats and global change drivers simultaneously

        in ways that are responsive to and inclusive of human communities.”

Biodiversity, climate change, and ecosystem services

     · 2009 ~ Harold Mooney ~ Current opinion in Environmental Stability

     · Ecosystem capacity to deliver services is under immense stress due to climate change, requiring adaptation

       and new tools to maintain and restore biological and social systems.

     · A functioning ecosystem delivers services to benefit society, such as food, clean water, and cultural values,

       but human activity is limiting ecosystem services and biodiversity.

     · Species and populations are being lost as well as parts of communities and ecosystems affected by the

       changing climate.

Five Potential Consequences of Climate Change for Invasive Species

     · 2008 ~ Jessica Hellmann, James Byers, Britta Bierwagen, Jeffrey Dukes ~ Society for Conservation Biology

     · Evaluates the impact of climate change on ecosystems through the lens of invasive species; with

        a latitudinal shift in the climate, ecosystems may be exposed to new invasive species that can

        severely impact biodiversity.

     · Potential Consequences: “(1) altered mechanisms of transport and introduction, (2) altered climatic

        constraints on invasive, species, (3) altered distribution of existing invasive species, (4) altered

        impact of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of management strategies for

        invasive species.

Evolutionary Responses to Climate Change

     · 2007 ~ David K. Skelly ~ Society for Conservation Biology

     · Several organisms have shown genetic variation, for example, a species of frog has undergone

       localized evolution in thermal tolerance as a response to a changing climate.

     · Reasons some species will be unable to evolutionarily respond fast enough to keep up with

       climate change: (a) Time lag between change and response. (b) Lack of genetic variation,

       (c) Erosion of genetic variation.

Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change

     · 2006 ~ Camille Parmesan ~ University of Texas at Austin

     · “Rather, some of the best-understood cases are presented to illustrate the complex ways in which

        various facets of climatic change impact wild biota. The choice of studies for illustration attempts

        to draw attention to the taxonomic and geographic breadth of climate-change impacts and to the

        most-recent literature not already represented in prior reviews.”

     · Shows how organisms and species have evolved and adapted phenotypically, genetically, distributively,

        and behaviorally as a result of climate-change related factors.

Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change

     · 2005 ~ Miguel B. Araújo, Richard G. Pearson, Wilfried Thuiller, Markus Erhard ~ University of Oxford

     · “[R]ecent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there

        remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties.”

     · Models are not always reliable and need significantly more data and analytics in order to determine their veracity.

Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: The need for a yardstick

     · 2005  ~  Marcel E. Visser and Christiaan Both  ~  Proceedings of the Royal Society B

     · Highlights (1) the importance of understanding the consequences and magnitude of phenological

       shifts and (2) the critical need for a measure to determine how much a species should be shifting to

       match climatic changes in its surroundings.

     · Argues that shifts in food abundance can be used as a proxy to see whether a species shifts its phenology

       too little or too much compared to this measure.

     · Calls for researchers with long-term phenological datasets to link their data with proxy datasets to

       expand the documentation of climate change on the mismatches in phenological timing due to climate


The impact of climate change on birds

     · 2004  ~  Humphrey Q. P. Crick ~  IBIS International Journal of Avian Science

     · Examines the impact of climate change on the population dynamics and phenology of birds, including the

       timing of migration and nesting.

     · Highlights the impact of climate change on birds worldwide, including shifts in distributions and

       geographical range, alterations to the timing of migration and nesting, changes in demographic factors such

       as breeding performance and survival, declines in populations, and the spectrum of capacities of different

       species to adapt.

     · Cautions that the approach presented in this paper are still at the predictive modeling stage and that

       more methods must be developed, and more research must be conducted to test the predictions.

A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems

     · 2003 ~ Camille Parmesan, Gary Yohe ~ University of Texas at Austin, Wesleyan University

     · “This approach [climate change being firstly responsible for displacement of species], however,

        effectively ignores small, systematic trends that may become important in the longer term. Such

        underlying trends would be confounded (and often swamped) by strong forces such as habitat loss.”

     · Uses metadata in order to evaluate the strength of the climate fingerprint on the geographic movement

        polewards of species and communities.

Ecological and evolutionary traps

     · 2002 ~ Martin A. Schlaepfer, Michael C. Runge, Paul W. Sherman ~ Cornell University

     · “Ecological traps are part of a broader phenomenon, evolutionary traps, involving a dissociation

       between cues that organisms use to make any behavioral or life-history decision and outcomes

       normally associated with that decision. A trap can lead to extinction if a population falls below a

       critical size threshold before adaptation to the novel environment occurs.”

     · Evaluates human disturbances on altering natural environments that create ecological traps and

       offers solutions for the future through wildlife management and conservation

Range Shifts and Adaptive Responses to Quaternary Climate Change

     · 2001 ~ Margaret B. Davis and Ruth G. Shaw ~  Science

     · Looks at shifts in the latitude or elevation of trees in response to climate change, examines how

       populations have become established at higher latitudes, discusses how adaptation has occurred

       in past responses to these shifts, and highlights how genetic variability serves as the basis for

       evolutionary change and declines from north to south.

     · Discusses how adaptation occurs during migration and investigates adaptations that have occurred

       in modern tree populations, including past range shifts under which tree populations are now adapted

       to current conditions.

     · Discusses some of the limitations to the rate of adaptation in the face of climate change, including

       multiple reasons why the processes outlined may not occur as readily as they did in the past.

Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change

     · 2001 ~ John P. McCarty ~ University of Maryland

     · A broad overview of the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity, such as the threat

        posed by declining precipitation, a changing food supply, and changes in geographic range.

     · These threats pose significant risks to ecosystems, with changes in weather patterns leading to

        ecological disruption as food chains fail and primary producer populations decline.

Biological consequences of global warming: Is the signal already apparent?

     · 2000 ~ Lesley Hughes ~ Cell Press

     · Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature, directly affect: (1) Metabolic,

       photosynthetic, and developmental rates in organisms, (2) Elevation levels needed for species,

       (3) Life cycle events that rely on environmental cues, (4) Species with short generation times and

       rapid population growth, leading to microevolutionary change.

     · The past century of anthropogenic climate change is already affecting the physiology, distribution,

       and phenology of species.

Climate change & biodiversity

Near-synonyms for “climate change & biodiversity” include climate change biology and species redistribution science.

Contents of this page:

     · Information

       · Periodicals

         · Bibliographies

           · Institutions

                  ~ International

                  ~ US government

                  ~ Research & professional associations

                  ~ NGOs

             · Conservation translocations, managed translocation & assisted migration

               · Modeling

                 · Select readings on climate change biology

Also see:

     · Oceans & climate change

       · Forests & climate change (including REDD+)

         · Coral reefs

Jason Dai & Kate Danziger (2023), Charlene Duong & Savana Vida (2022) and Makayla Wigder (2021) of Brandeis University contributed to this page.