A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



Key resources

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)

     · “an instrument to enable transparency in national and international climate politics. The CCPI

       uses a standardized framework to compare the climate performance of 59 countries and the EU,

       which together account for 92% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The climate protection

       performance is assessed in four categories: GHG Emissions, Renewable Energy, Energy Use and

       Climate Policy.”

Climate Diplomacy

   · “adelphi and the German Federal Foreign Office first formed an alliance over a decade ago and

     have since been playing a central role in the process of analysing the international debates on

     climate diplomacy and security, while developing key narratives, contributing to awareness raising

     and capacity building efforts, and supporting international and regional dialogues on this topic

     around the world.”

Climate Initiatives Platform @ UNEP

     · “This portal collects, shares and tracks information on international cooperative climate initiatives

       driven by non-state actors such as businesses and cities, often with support from national states.

       More than 50 data points are open for each initiative. Browse through the 289 initiatives…”

Climate Fairshares

Climate Negotiations Database @ BU Global Development Policy Center

Climate Policy Engagement Map @ InfluenceMap

   · “...a comprehensive tool to enable positive and practical engagement with climate policy in

     line with a 2C world. We bring together a global network of experts and expertise and map

     out regulatory timelines, critical intervention opportunities, existing lobbying activity,

     stakeholder positions and key contacts. We are adding to this knowledge base continuously

     in collaboration with our Content Partners listed below. The Map is used by companies, trade

     associations, investors and any other stakeholders wanting to add their supportive voice to

     policy makers and regulators globally. As well as specific climate policies, our Map covers

     energy, transport, finance and other policy areas critical to reaching the 2C target."

Climate Policy Info Hub

   · "...offers evidence on climate policy options. It explores impacts and implications of international

     and EU climate policy for decision-makers in policy, business and civil society. The aim is to

     support informed science-based EU climate policy-making. The knowledge is compiled by a

     group of independent climate policy researchers."


   · USAID's knowledge portal on climate change & development.

Key international agreements

1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

     · Signed in Rio de Janeiro

     · Entered into force 1994

     · Notable as the first mention within the context of the United Nations of the term Common but

       Differentiated Responsibilities, which became a cornerstone concept of international  

       environmental diplomacy and negotiation.

1997 Kyoto Protocol

     · 193 members of the UNFCCC ratified the Kyoto Protocol, with Canada withdrawing in 2020,

       leaving 192 ratifying members.

     · The Protocol stipulated that higher levels of GHGs were having a negative effect on the global

       climate and contributed to global warming, and required for the lowering of GHG levels to what

       was deemed as acceptable levels. The varying levels of emissions from country to country was

       based on the idea of common but differentiated responsibilities.

2015 Paris Climate Accord

     · Adopted by 193 members of the UNFCCC. The Accord is not enforced but is a collective

       agreement to follow certain actions.

     · The goal of the Accord is to reduce the global effects of climate change through international

       cooperation and action. The main way this is expected to be achieved is by taking action to

       prevent global temperatures from rising by 2 degrees Celsius.

     · While the United States pulled out from the Paris Agreements in 2020, it rejoined the  

       agreement a year later.

Subnational transborder cooperative initiatives

UNFCCC Non-state Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA)

Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy

R20: Regions of Climate Action

     · “ help sub-national governments around the world to develop and commuicate low-carbon

       and climate resilient economic development projects.”

Under2 MOU & Coalition

     · ”The Under2 Coalition is driven by a group of ambitious state and regional governments

       committed to keeping global temperature rises to well below 2°C.”

Joint statement on Climate Action by Germany & California

Key initiatives

2050 Pathways Platform

     · "...a multi-stakeholder initiative launched at COP 22 by High-Level Climate Champions Laurence

       Tubiana and Hakima El Haite to support countries seeking to develop long-term, net zero-GHG,

       climate-resilient and sustainable-development pathways. Designed as a space for collective

       problem-solving, the Platform will also build a broader constellation of cities, states, and

       companies engaged  in long-term low-emissions planning of their own and in support of

       national strategies."

Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance (BOGA)

Carbon Neutrality Coalition

Clean Energy Ministerial

     · "...a high-level global forum to promote policies and programs that advance clean energy

       share lessons learned and best practices, and to encourage the transition to a global clean

       energy economy."

Climate Ambition Support Alliance (CASA)

   · “...seeks to strengthen the capacity and support the engagement of climate-vulnerable countries in

      international climate negotiations.”

Climate Technology Centre & Network (UNFCCC, UNEP & UNIDO)

Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT)

China Carbon Forum

Climate Technology Centre & Network

Global Climate Action Agenda (GCAA)

Harvard Project on Climate Agreements

Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM)

Just Energy Transition Partnerships (JETP)

     South Africa

          US Treasury announcement


          Wikipedia entry

Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP)

Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) Global Partnership

     Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS)

        · Defunct US government program

Common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR)

CBDR @ ClimaTalk

CBDR @ Climate Nexus

CBDR @ Encycopedia Brittanica

CBDR @ Wikipedia

Transparency initiatives

Capacity Building Initiative for Transparency


   · Formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project

Climate Transparency

   · Formerly the Climate Transparency Initiative (CTI)

Initiative for Climate Action Transparency (ICAT)

Partnership on Transparency in the Paris Agreement

Select readings in climate cooperation, negotiations & diplomacy

     · In reverse chronological order

Modern Diplomacy 5th Edition

     · 2019  ~  R.P. Barston  ~  Routledge

     · Updated periodically, this book examines the broad range of current diplomatic practice including

       the important environmental issues that have been negotiated and their impact in negotiations.

     · Helpful introduction to international relations, law, and diplomacy

     · Chapters on environmental diplomacy & the Paris Accord.

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change

     · 2017  ~  Daniel R. Klein, et al.  ~  Oxford University Press

     · A book in three parts, it is an insider perspective on the Paris Accord and includes contributors

       who were actively involved in negotiations whether on delegations or the talks to follow

     · Summarizes the agreements preceding the accord, a detailed summary of the Paris Accord, and

       the overall importance it holds in the context of the global environmental regime

The Paris Agreement and the new logic of international climate policies

     · 2016  ~  Robert Falkner  ~  International Affairs

     · The Paris Agreement broke ground and offers a chance at a more durable international cooperation.

     · Hesitant assessment on whether the treaty can actually deliver, but it did overcome one of the

       biggest barriers by sidestepping distributional conflicts.

Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Agreements

     · 2014  ~  Lawerence E. Susskind & Saleem H. Ali  ~  Oxford University Press

     · Lessons about international environmental treaty-making, updated from the original

       1994 publication

     · Insight into the process of the treaty-making arena, examining successes and failures as well

       as the contributions of civil society and the scientific sector.

     · The role theories of international relations play in making treaties more enforceable and successful.

NGO Diplomacy

     · 2007  ~  Michele M. Betsill & Elisabeth Corell  ~  MIT Press

     · Subtitle: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental


     · An analytical framework for assessing the impact of NGOs on international environmental

       negotiations including the factors that determine the degree of NGO influence.

     · Examines case studies through an analytical framework, including the Kyoto and Cartagena

       Protocols and the UNCCD, to determine what factors explain variation in NGO influence.

     · Published as an essential guidebook on the role of NGOs in international diplomacy relating

       to the environment.

     · Uses case studies to analyze the effectiveness of various strategies often employed by NGOs to

       further environmental causes.

     · Includes a thorough dissection of the role of NGOs in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations.

     · “Since Stockholm, NGO involvement in international decision-making processes related to the

       environment and sustainable development has escalated, as demonstrated by their participation

       in the two subsequent global conferences.”


Constrain-zero in on

Aki Yamaguchi (2023) of Brandeis University contributed to this page.

Climate change diplomacy, cooperation & negotiations