A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



Climate change hub > Approaches >  Climate justice >

Contents below:

     · Information

       · Declarations, letters & statements

         · Select readings in civil disobedience & climate change

Also see:

     · NGOs page, where climate-focused NGOs are highlighted

Information & resources

Camp for Climate Action (CCA)

     · Wikipedia entry

Climate Activist Defense @ Civil Liberties Defense Center

Climate Disobedience Center

     · “...exists to support a growing community of climate dissidents who take the risk of acting

        commensurate with the scale and urgency of the crisis.”

Climate Protest Tracker


Declarations, letters & statements

✔︎Info@⇾ Climate emergency declaration @ Wikipedia

✔︎Info@⇾ Spreadsheet database on governmental units declaring a climate emergency

         · With links to relevant documents

✔︎Info@⇾Religious statements on climate change @ IPL

✔︎Info@⇾Climate Change and Human Rights declarations

2000 Nottingham Declaration on Climate Change

2004 Climate Justice Declaration

2008 Niue Declaration on Climate Change

2013 Declaration on Climate Justice

2015 St. Julien's Declaration on Climate Justice

2017 Lofoten Declaration

2017 Climate Damages Declaration

2017 Fairbanks Declaration of the Foreign Ministers of the Arctic States

     · 10th Ministerial meeting, Arctic Council

2017 UNESCO Declaration of Ethical Principles in relation to Climate Change

2018 Caribbean Community

2019 City of South Portland

Faith & Science Declaration on Climate Change @ United Planet Faith & Science Initiative

Women's Connected Leadership Declaration on Climate Justice

Select readings in climate change activism & civil disobedience

     · In reverse chronological order

Civil disobedience by scientists helps press for urgent climate action

     · 2022  ~  Stuart Capstick et al.  ~  Nature Climate Change

     · Scientists brought to attention by civil disobedience by leveraging the credibility and authority

       associated with their line of work

     · Shaping public opinion, these scientists help shift public influence as well as policymakers

     · Moral and ethical influence, scientists engaging in breaking norms challenge status quos and

       highlight the need for action.

World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency

     · 2020  ~  William J Ripple, et al.  ~  BioScience

     · In 2019, 11,000 scientists issued warning of climate emergency

     · This warning covers a large list of concerns affecting land and ocean (including ocean acidification,

       gas emissions, and deforestation)  

     · An effort by scientists to influence both policymakers and as well as increase public awareness on

       the potentially catastrophic issue of climate change.

Conservation must capitalize on climate’s moment

     · 2020  ~  Charlie J. Gardner, et al.  ~  Nature Communications

     · Gardner is a conservationist with extensive expertise in the field work, capitalizing on his  

       knowledge of climate crisis.

     · Gardner's contribution to innovation and research are valuable assets to identifying impacts on

       climate change

Climate Change, Environmental Terrorism, Eco-Terrorism and Emerging Threats

     · 2020  ~  Spadaro, Paola Andrea  ~  Journal of Strategic Security

     · The article cites the acidification of oceans, the depletion of marine food supplies, weakened

       forest resilience, reduced crop yields, and fragility in the food supply chain as major drivers of

       radical actions, in response to governments and organizations that these far-left individuals

       view as having not done enough.

     · The essay goes through a brief history of eco-terrorism, including particular study into ELF as

       one of the founders of the concept. This also includes a discussion into the term “eco-terrorism”

       itself; the article claims that, between 1979 and 2010, ELF activities caused zero injuries or

       deaths, despite being among the main causes of anti-terrorism expansions in law enforcement.

       However, there are other notable examples––such as the Justice Department and the Animal

       Rights Extremists––that have splintered from other groups and are willing to use more violent


     · Due to the existence and radicalism of certain groups, a much larger swath of environmental

       organizations have been the subject of repression. The United Kingdom, for example, lists two

       major peaceful organizations––Greenpeace and Extinction Rebellion––in their police

       counterterrorism guides. Spadaro posits that this repression may be a turning point in the opposite

       direction, inspiring people to take action with these nonviolent groups as a protest against

       government overreach.

Civil Society and Global Governance

     · 2020  ~  Ginanjar, Wahyu and Ahmad Mubarrok

     · Journal of Contemporary Governance and Public Policy

     · Subtitle: The Indirect Participation of Extinction Rebellion in Global Governance on Climate Change

     · Dives into the issue many disobedient movements have with modern climate conferences and

       solutions: politics. Lacking proper enforcement methods and guarantees for participation, the

       major proposed solutions such as the Paris Agreement tend to fall apart and prove ineffectual.

       Instead of depending on politics to sort themselves out, climate issues––as many other fields––must

       have pressure come from below to find any real solutions.

     · Examines Extinction Rebellion, among the most active modern civil disobedience groups devoted

       to environmental causes. They summarize their three main demands––“Tell the Truth;” “Act Now;”

       and going “Beyond Politics”––and their organizational history and tactics, including using

       human blockades, and comparing the group to those present during the 1960s American Civil

       Rights Movement.

     · The article also examines how Extinction Rebellion participates in political decisions and the

        overall conversation regarding climate change. Extinction Rebellion fights in the realm of

       “institutional evolution,” looking to rework the fundamental methods by which we tackle these

       problems and the groups that are in power to do so. Specifically, they advocate for––as many

       other modern climate activist organizations do––the creation of a citizen’s assembly, or a council

       made up of non-politicians to investigate and drive climate policy forward free from interests such     

       as corporations or re-election campaigns.

Scientists must act on our own warnings to humanity

     · 2019  ~  Gardner, Charlie J. and Claire F. R. Wordley  ~  Nature Ecology & Evolution

     · A brief summary of the scientific community’s efforts to broadcast the need for urgency, including

       a 1992 address by the Union of Concerned Scientists, and again in 2017 in an open letter with

       over 15,000 signatories.

     · The authors argue that, historically, pressure must come from below in order to affect political

       change, citing examples such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi. Many scientists

       have participated in institutional democratic reforms, such as advocacy, petitions, and voting,

       but to little effect; despite these actions, the best the international community has come up with

       does not nearly cover all that is necessary.

     · “As conservation scientists and members of Extinction Rebellion” [see: “Civil Society and Global

       Governance”], the authors make their case for the scientific community to go further in action     

       than they previously have, by participating in and organizing massive, nonviolent disruptive action.

       They provide several different ways for scientists to get involved, and debunk multiple arguments

       made by scientists against participating in these actions, citing a study that proved that

       participating in civil disobedience does not alter the perceived credibility of scientists.

     · Scientists must accept collaboration as a valid method to conduct better research

 The Earth Liberation Front and Environmental Terrorism

     · 2010  ~  Leader, Stefan and Peter Probst  ~  Terrorism and Political Violence

     · A deep dive into the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), a radical organization willing to employ any

       methods in order to push for environmentalist causes—reveals patterns common to many

       disobedient climate organizations.

     · Examines the decentralized, non-structural nature of ELF: instead of having any hierarchical

       guiding organization or individual leaders, the organization relies on individual actors to take

       part in and organize small local actions, operating on a national understanding of the organization

       taking the main role in guiding actions and recruitment.

     · While the ELF was often willing to use violence and other terroristic means, they avoided

       injuring humans. They perfectly fit the adage that terrorists want “a lot of people watching, not

       a lot of people dead,” by Brian Jenkins, an American terror expert.

Testimony of James F. Jarboe

     · 2002 - Jarboe, James F., Domestic Terrorism Section Chief, Counterterrorism Division, FBI

     · Before the US House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health

     · An early look at the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)’s policies and interests in climate  

       disobedience. Jarboe describes how “special interest” terrorism––terrorist acts motivated by  

       individual, particular goals rather than general ideology––became an emergent threat, and

       climate disobedience was at the forefront of this.

     · Covers the challenge of confronting climate disobedience movements, referring in particular to

       the Earth Liberation Front and the Animal Liberation Front, but in a widely applicable way to

       many disobedience groups: decentralization. By denying law enforcement easy opportunities to

       infiltrate groups and trace individuals back to larger cells, this structure––which is common in

       left-wing environmental groups––allows the group to remain elusive.

     · Jarboe takes the Committee through a brief history of violent ecological disobedience. The first

       notable acts were in 1977, when members of Greenpeace who lost faith in the traditional

       organizing methods of the organization formed the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and

       attacked commercial fishing operations.

Beyond arson? A threat assessment of the Earth Liberation Front

     · 2010 ~ Gary A. Ackerman ~ Terrorism and Political Violence

     · Investigates the relationship between political instability and economic growth in regions such

       as Sub-Saharan Africa

     · Ethnic divisions could have specific impacts that may exacerbate preexisting negative economic


     · Recommends implementing and creating new policies to strengthen democratic institutions

       improving governance.

Climate activism & advocacy

A note on climate activism resources

This page provides a top-level guide to "resources & tools" regarding the practice of climate change activism. Note that the roots of climate change activism reach deep into the history of environmental activism, and that it is typically a judgement call as to whether any particular resource belongs on this page.

For example, a wide array of "activist" resources focused on promoting renewable energy could be placed here, but they can largely be found on the Renewable Energy page.

In general, for climate change activists looking for more "content-based" information, a good next-place to see are the main Mitigation and Adaptation pages and the Divestment section of the Fossil fuels page.


Banking on climate chaos
Summer of Heat