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          Red River Basin Riparian Project

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          Great Lakes United - Home


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          Untitled Document

          Bay of Fundy Ecosystem Partnership


          The Tijuana River Watershed Project

          Welcome to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology

          Oceans Blue - Baja California to Bering Sea M...

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          Foundations of Success - Improving the Practi...

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          Conserving Biodiversity on Military Lands

          World Bank Group | Biodiversity


          Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCT...

          CO2 Science Magazine


          Climate Change - Biodiversity - What is biodi...

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          Eden Project - Welcome to the Eden Project...

          In Memory of Christine Stevens

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          Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation Official Home Page

          Seeds of Change

          56 1999 060

          Lecture 31: Value of Biodiversity

          Tigers and Rhinos and Pandas, Oh My! VitalSTA...

          Mass Extinction Underway | Biodiversity Crisi...

          Integrating Biodiversity into Land Use Planning


          Global Environment Facility

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          Exploring the Environment

          ITTO Index Page

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          Biodiversity and Human Health

          The Deforestation of the Amazon: A Case Study...

          Economic valuation of wetlands (1)

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          The Bear Den--All About Bears

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          NSF - OLPA - PR 02-51: BOTANISTS DISCOVER NEW...

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          Champion Trees and Ancient Forests

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          Castle-Crown Wilderness Coalition

          Charles River Watershed Association

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          Welcome to the Great Bear Foundation

          National Tropical Botanical Garden

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          Conservation, Nature, and Biodiversity

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          Organismic & Evolutionary Bio 95hfv Syllabus


          African Conservation Foundation

          Feather Trade: Introduction

, Bird House Designs For More Than...




          February #1 TOC

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          Encyclopedia Smithsonian:Bats

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Y2Y council draft



· Kew Botanical Garden


• Bogd Khan Mountain Reserve, Mongolia


Charles Waterton establishes Britain's first bird sanctuary on his Yorkshire estate


Mt Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts


Manchester Association for the Prevention of Smoke, UK


World’s first international maritime-meteorological congress in Brussels


U.S. Government cedes Yosemite to California

George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature


Ernst Haeckel coins "ecology"


French-UK Convention to conserve oysters by prohibiting fishing outside certain dates (signed)


French-UK Convention to conserve oysters by prohibiting fishing outside certain dates (enters into force)  

Convention Establishing Uniform Regulations Concerning Fishing in the Rhine between Constance and Basle

German foresters and farmers call for international bird protection


Yellowstone National Park (U.S.) established

Leipzig international meteorology conference


Nuttall Ornithological Club established


Edward Suess coins "biosphere" (Der Entstehung der Alpen)

International Meteorological Congress in Vienna


18 white-tailed deer translocated from NY to VT


✍︎  "Overfishing Convention" for North Sea


✍︎  U.S.-UK "Modus Vivendi" agreement relating to Bering Sea Fur Seal Fisheries


✍︎  Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration Treaty


✍︎  Pacific Fur SealArbitration Decision


Friends of Nature Movement (est. Vienna: now Friends of Nature International)

New York Zoological Society (now WCS)


✍︎  London Convention for the Protection of Wild Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa

✍︎  Convention between the Riverine States of the Rhine Respecting Regulations Governing

  the Transport of Corrosive and Poisonous Substances


✍︎  European Convention Concerning the Conservation of Birds Useful to Agriculture

✍︎  Danube convention on fisheries conservation

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea


Society for the Protection of Wild Fauna of the Empire (UK)


International Congress for the Portection of Nature


✍︎  Convention for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals


Lawrence J Henderson, The Fitness of the Environment: Life as an improbable and

   unexplained phenomenon

Consultative Committee for the International Protection of Nature


Grey Seals (Protection) Act [UK]


Canadian-American Treaty for the Protection of Migratory Birds


International Labor Organization


US Senate resolution on conservation


International Committee (Council) for Bird Protection (Preservation)


International Congress on the Protection of Flora, Fauna, and Natural Sites and Monuments;

Convention for Preservation of Halibut Fishery of North Pacific Ocean


BI Vernadsky, Biosfera Scientific examination of "biosphere" Noosphere defined as transformation of the biosphere by humanity


International Congress for the Study and Protection of Birds


Second International Congress for the Protection of Nature; Convention for Regulation of Whaling

Trail Smelter case: IJC awarded US damages in  (agricultural damage in Washington state from SO2 emissions from Cominco


ESA Committee for the Study of Plant and Animal Communities report advocated a comprehensive U.S. nature sanctuary system

Glacier-Waterton International Peace Park established


London Convention Relative to the Preservation of Flora and Fauna in Their Natural State


USA: Migratory Bird Hunding Stamp Act ("Duck Stamp Act")


Wright, George and Ben Thompson. 1935. Fauna of the National Parks of the U.S.

Trail smelter case: US/Canada Convention submitting to arbitration

Paul Sears publishes Deserts on the March


U.S.-Mexico Treaty for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals


International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)


Morley Roberts, Biopolitics

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Le Phénomène Humain


G.V. Jacks & R.O. Whyte publish Vanishing Lands


Washington Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere


Washington Convention enters into force


Ed Graham publishes Natural Principles of Land Use


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

International Monetary Fund

Food and Agriculture Organization


UN International Law Commission;  UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

International Convention for the Regulation of  Whaling

June 30-July 7, Basel, Switzerland International Conference for the Protection of Nature


ECOSOC resolution convening 1949 UNCCUR

International Conference for the Protection of Nature (June 28-July 3, Brunnen, Switzerland)

IUPN is informally established

William Vogt, Road to Survival


Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources (Denver) convened to implement WHC;

ICRW Entered into force;

Conference for the Establishment of the International Union for the Protection of Nature (September 30-October 7, Fontainebleau, France

International Union for the Protection of Nature established (October 5)

IUPN's 1st General Assembly (October 5-7)

IUPN Commission on Education is established (renamed Commission on Education and Communication in 1990)

Commission on Nomenclature is established (subsumed in 1970's by Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas)

International Maritime Organization


Council of Europe

UN Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilisation of Resources

Tropical Tuna Convention; August 22-29, Lake Success, USA First International Technical Conference on the Protection of Nature (within UNSCCUR) establishes IUPN as a going concern


International Convention for the Protection of Birds; October 18-23: IUPN 2nd General Assembly, Brussels, Belgium (Survival Service Committee established)

Ecological Society of America attempted to implement 1932 nature sanctuary system


IUPN publishes The Position of Nature Protection in the World; IUPN Commission on Public Information (dissolves in 1958)


First IUPN Bulletin published (January)

3rd IUCN General Assembly (September 3-9, Caracas, Venezuela)

North Pacific Fisheries Convention signed


3rd International Conference for the Protection of Fauna and Flora of Africa (October 26-31, Bukavu, Zaire)

Fundamentals of Ecology, Eugene Odum


4th IUCN General Assembly (August 25-September 3, Copenhagen, Denmark); IUCN Commission on Ecology (becomes Commission on Ecosystem Management in 1996)

IMO Oil Pollution Convention


IUPN's first logo selected (known as the "flaming artichoke”)

IUPN's first field mission: information is gathered about the status of various threatened mammalian species of the Middle East and South Asia (January), undertaken by Lee Talbot, author of the resulting 'A Look at Threatened Species' report

IUPN and the International Office for the Protection of Nature (IOPN) merge.

IUPN acquires IOPN's "van Tienhoven Library"

International Air Pollution Congress, NYC

Harlod Blum, Time's Arrow and Evolution


June 20-28, Edinburgh, Scotland. 5th General Assembly.

IUPN becomes IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Survival Service Committee becomes an approved commission. (renamed Species Survival Commission1981)

August 4, Salzburg, Austria. The IUCN-sponsored International Youth Federation for Environmental Studies and Conservation is founded.

Man's role in changing the face of the earth

IUPN changes name to International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)


International Atomic Energy Agency (est.)

International Geophysical Year (July-July '58)

Interim Convention on Conservation of North Pacific Fur Seals

Scientific Council on Oceanic Resources


September 11-19. Athens, Greece. 6th General Assembly. Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas is established (renamed World Commission on Protected Areas in 1996).

Survival Service Commission publishes first list of 26 endangered mammalian species

Scientific Council on Antarctic Research

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas


Charles Darwin Foundation is created in Brussels, to save the fauna and flora of the Galapagos Islands, under the joint auspices of IUCN and UNESCO.

Antartic Treaty: Antarctica established as the world's first international scientific reserve

Raymond Dasmann publishes Environmental Conservation


Philip Wagner, The Human Use of the Earth (states that there are environental limits)

Swedish scientists link transport of sulfur with lake acidification (1950-60)

Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy


UNESCO Division for Natural Resources

World Food Program

WWF founded

International Clean Air Congress, London

UNGA Resolution 1721 (XVI): International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space


UNGA Resolution on relationship between economic development and environmental protection

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

IMO Oil Pollution Convention amended


GE sells first US reactor to Jersey Central Power and Light

IUCN General Assembly (Nairobi)

Organization for African Unity

Raymond Dasmann publishes The Last Horizon


US Northeast Blackout

UN Development Program established

UNESCO Natural Resources Research Committee adopts world conference on environment

UNESCO Natural Resources Research Committee

ICC releases Environmental Guidelines


ECOSOC invites UNESCO & FAO to prepare report on "Conservatioonservation and Rational Use of the Environment”

International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna


Swedish scientist Svante Oden publishes article which prompts Swedish govt to limit sulfur content of fuel oil in


UN Industrial Development Organization

Torrey Canyon oil spill affects UK and France


Swedish Ambassador to UN Astrom proposes Stockholm Conference to ECOSOC (July)

Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere; UNGA endorses Stockholm Conference Proposal (December)

ECOSOC adopts RF Dasmann's report

Hardin: Tragedy of the Commons

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


UN Fund for Population Activities; Scientific Council on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)

IMO Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties

IMO International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

South East Atlantic Convention (fisheries)


Alvin Toffler, Future Shock

Congress bans supersonic transport issue (SSTs)


Man and the Biosphere Programme

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance


UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) est.

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) est.

UN Environment Program est.

Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

Oslo Convention for Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from ships and Aircraft

OECD Recommendation on Guiding Principles Concerning International Economic Aspects of Environmental Policies

Raymond Dasmann publishes Planet in Peril?

Taghi Farvar& John Milton publish The Careless Technology


Convention on the Trade of Endangered Species (CITES)

Convention for Prevention of Pollution by Ships

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts

Raymond Dasmann et al. publish Ecological Principles for Economic Development


OECD issues several recommendations on the environment (including PPP)

· Recommendation of the Council on the Implementation of the Polluter-Pays Principle

· OECD Recommendation of the Council on Principles concerning Transfrontier Pollution

Molina and Rowland, "Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoro-methanes: Chlorine atom catalized destruction of ozone" appears in Nature

Paris convention for Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources

Cocoyoc Declaration (UNEP/UNCTAD Symposium)


World Heritage Convention entered into force

UNEP Governi Council 3rd Session decided that ocean environment would be one of its concentration areas

UNEP sponsored Mediteranean Action Plan (MAP)

UNESCO/UNEP begin Program for Env Education

CITES & Ramsar enter into force

US-Mexico Joint Committee for the Conservation of Wild Flora and Fauna

US (Russel Train) calls attention to CFC/ozone problem to the NATO Committee on the Challenge of  Modern Society

Brezhnev Proposals at Helsinki CSCE conference

IMO Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties enters into force

IMO International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage enters into force


UNEP calls for meeting on protecting SOD

NAS concludes CFC's affect SOD; calls for regulation

Barcelona Framework Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution

UNEP establishes International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

OECD Guidelines for MNEs

OECD Recommendation of the Council on Equal Right of Access in Relation to Transfrontier Pollution (abrogated in 2017)


UN Conference on Desertification; Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

UNEP experts meeting produces World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer: recommends establishment of Coordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer (CCOL); adopted by UNEP Governing Council

Ozone ammendment to US CAA

UNEP Environment Coordination Board terminated

OECD Recommendation of the Council for the Implementation of a Regime of Equal Right of Access and Non- Discrimination in Relation to Transfrontier Pollution


Amoco Cadiz oil spill

UNEP Principles on Conservation and Harmonious Utilization of Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States

International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

US bans nonessential uses of CFC aerosols;  International conference (Germany) on SOD

UNESCO report on "indicators of the quality of life and environmental quality”

MARPOL Protocol

Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage enters into force


James Lovelock: Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth

Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) signed

First World Climate Conference (Geneva) warns of climate change

World Climate Programme established

Berne Convention on the Conservation of Wildlife and Natural Habitats;  Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals


UNEP GC calls for reduction in use and capacity of CFCs 11+12

UN Decade on Drinking Water Supply (1980s)

World Conservation Strategy; Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)


UNEP GC extablishes Working Group to elaborate convention for protection from SOD

UNEP Env Law Experts Meeting (Uruguay) include SOD among top priorities (adopted by UNEP GC in 1982)


Working Group begins negotiations in Stockholm

NAS/NRC report on C+E of SOD

1968-1982: Stalemate in European talks

German policy makes a reversal based on Waldsterben research by Ulrich Join Scandinavians in seeking Sox reductions

EC Directive on Large Combustion Plants seeks low-sulfur power stations in long term

CCAMLR entered into force; IWC votes in favour of a moratorium on commercial whaling to be phased in by 1986;  Berne Convention entered into force; UNGA World Charter for Nature

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (Section XII concerns the environment)

Nauru Agreement


Bonn Convention entered into force; International Tropical Timber Organization; International Tropical Timber Association

Working Groups advance cooperative science EMEP grows to sophisticated monitoring network and center of understanding

LRTAP Convention enters into force


• LRTAP: Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP)

• NAS/NRC report on SOD


Helsinki protocol to LRTAP

Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes Conference of climate specialists (Austria) reaches consensus on the seriousness of GCC

1982-85: Working Group drafts Convention emphasizing research, monitoring and data exchange, with control protocols to be negotiated separately

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Calls for 1987 protocol

British Antartica Survey publishes data (collected since 1960s) on AOH

Reagan submits ViennaConvention to Senate for ratification


The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy argues that science is too weak to justify further regulation Later in the year, the group acknowledges that substitutes could be developed within 5 years and begins to advocate limiting future CFC use

UNEP and WMO release the first comprehensive international scientific assessment on ozone depletion

US Senate ratifies Vienna Convention

Various activities under US government/international agencies International negotiations/consultations continue

NASA releases Atmospheric Ozone 1985

Chernobyl nuclear accident

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident


World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Brundtland report)


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established by WMO & UNEP

G-7 Venice Summit states responsibility for environmental problems, with SOD leading the list

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed

1988 Canada/US/Mexico Tripartite Agreement on the Conservation of Wetlands and their Migratory Birds

IUCN adopts "World Conservation Union" as a working name; (MAB) Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves; Tropical Forestry Action Plan (FAO, UNDP, WB, IUCN, WRI)

Regional Seas Programme changes name to "Oceans and Coastal Areas" (OCA)

Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA)

NGOs motivate the 30% Club of 12 states

1985/1987 Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes


Declaration of Brazilia (Latin American and Caribbean states reaffirming sovereignty over resources, but willingness to cooperate on environmental issues)

8 Amazon states support (1) Amazonian Special Environmental Commission and (2) Special Commission on Indigenous Affairs

Exxon Valdez oil spill

G-7 Green Summit

Sophia Protocol on NOx

UK reverse position on acid rain and other environmental issues, partly in response to evidence on acidification in Wales

Toronto World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere calls for a World Atmosphere Fund & a 20% CO2 reduction target by 2005

UNGA Res 45/53: Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind

NASA Ozone Trends Panel reported a decline in stratospheric ozone between 1970-86 that was 2-3 times more thatn had been predicted in models used for the Montreal Protocols

DuPont announces termination of its $600 million CFC business by shortly after 2000

UNEP Hague Ozone Science Meeting

Rainforest Alliance establishes Smartwood Program

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal


Business Council for Sustainable Development

Ministerial Conference on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change (Netherlands) issues Noordwijk Declaration calling for stabilization by 2000

Helsinki Declaration: total phaseout of CFCs by 2000

IPCC’s First Assessment Report affirms that global warming is a serious threat


Protocol the the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection

First UN Security Council environmental resolution (holding Iraq liable for damages)

Global Environment Facility (reestablished 1994)

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) calls for stabilization as a first step

Bush Policy: Sununu argues that action unwarranted in light of uncertainty about effect and costs

London meeting: Full phaseout in industrial countries of both CFCs and halons by 2000 New restrictions on methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride (Lindar Ammendments to Montreal Protocol)

Formal negotiations for a climate convention begin under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Caring for the Earth Strategy for Sustainable Living

Business Charter on Sustainable Development (ICC)

Valdez Principles

Declaration of World Industry Conference on Environmental Management (WICEM II)

Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (25 February)


UNGA Res 47/191: Commission on Sustainable Development

OECD Environment Policy Committee (Replaced 1972 OECD Environment Committee)

Declaration of the UN Conference on Environment and Development

First negotiating meeting on Framework convention in Washington

NASA reports that depletion was proceeding twice as fast as expected over parts of the northern hemishphere

UN Conerence on Environment and Development (UNCED, aka, the "Earth Summit")

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Convention on Biological Diversity

Agenda 21

Statement of Forest Principals

Rio Declaration

NASA reports higher chlorine levels over New England than any previously seen over Antarctica
Copenhagen meeting: Industrial countries advanced phaseout date of halons to 1994 and CFCs

VOC Protocol

Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and Lakes

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

Convention on the Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, with Protocols

Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

UN Security Council resolution 687 (Iraq: determining that a state can be liable for env damage and depletion of natural resources resulting from unlawful use of force)

Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import Into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes Within Africa

UNECE Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents

Entry into Force of Basel Convention


Commission on Sustainable Development established

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on the Convention to Combat Desertification

International Court of Justice establishes 7 member chamber for environmental matters

Forest Stewardship Council (est.)

Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment

Agreement to Promote Compliance with Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas


Convention to Combat Desertification

UNFCCC enters into force

UNCLOS entered into force

Instrument Establishing the Global Environmental Facility

International Tropical Timber Agreement

Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (replaces 1985 instrument)

ILC Draft Articles on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses

Convention on Nuclear Safety

Most industrial states (excluding US) agreed to ban export of hazardous wastes to poor states


First UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP) convenes in Berlin; agrees to negotiate quantitative limits by the end of 1997

IPCC’s Second Assessment Report affirms the human influence on climate change.

Nobel Prize awarded to Rowland, Molina, and Paul Crutzen

Vienna Meeting: increased restrictions on methyl bromide and HCFCsMontreal Protocol calls for developed countries to end of production of CFCs (except for "essential uses”)

World Trade Organization established



Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses

Declaration by top economists that CC is serious and there are economically efficient steps that can be taken

Kyoto Protocol is adopted in Japan, requiring industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.





IPCC’s Third Assessment Report concludes that temperature increases over the twenty-first century could be significantly larger than previously thought and that the evidence for human influence on climate change is stronger than ever.





Kyoto Protocol enters into force.



IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report says there is strong certainty that most of the observed warming of the past half-century is due to human influences.

Bali Action Plan is adopted, including negotiating tracks to be pursued under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (convention track) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties Under the Protocol (protocol track).



Copenhagen Accord is adopted, calling on participating countries to pledge specific actions they will undertake to mitigate GHG emissions.


UNFCCC COP establishes the Green Climate Fund as a mechanism to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.


Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) is established by the UNFCCC COP to develop a protocol, another legal instrument, or an agreed-upon outcome with legal force under the convention applicable to all parties.


Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol is adopted, setting up a second commitment period from 2013 to 2020.

10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YFP) 🔗



Lima Call for Climate Action

Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (1997) enters into force


Paris Agreement negotiated


Paris Agreement signed







International negotiations commence on an international convention on plastics

✍︎ Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted