A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



International organizations, cooperation & agreements

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

     ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution

          Haze Portal

          Haze Action Online

ASEAN Speciailized Meteorological Centre (ASMC)


Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET)

Clean Air Asia

Singapore Institute of International Affairs (SIIA)


          Haze (including annual Haze Outlook)

Air Quality Monitoring

Air Pollution in Asia: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map @ Air Quality Index

AirVisual Earth

Current Air Quality (South Korea) @ Air Korea @ Ministry of Environment (South Korea)

Air Quality Information (Seoul)

Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network @ (Environmental Protection Administvation, Executive (Taiwan)

Regional Average Particulate Air Pollution @ Berkeley Earth

Select readings on TBAP in Asia

     · In reverse chronological order.

Emergent geographies of chronic air pollution governance in Southeast Asia: Transboundary publics in Singapore

     · 2022  ~  Helena Varkkey  ~   Environmental Policy & Governance

     · Non-state actors in Singapore have been successful in addressing the transboundary haze issue

       by fitting in to the geopolitics of ASEAN. They prioritize economic strategies over overtly political

       aspects of transboundary pollution.

     · Highlights the role of NGOs in (1) catalyzing environmental change in response to social realities

       and (2) exercising power through strategic engagement with international and state actors

Transboundary air pollution and health: Evidence from East Asia

     · 2021  ~  Jaehyun Jung, Anna Choi and Semee Yoon  ~   Environment and Development Economics

     · Links the daily levels of particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing with daily levels of South Korean cities.

     · Successfully identified a lagging effect of transboundary air pollution leaving Beijing that increased

       fetal mortality rates in South Korea as well as poor air pollution conditions and local pollution trends.

Acute health impacts of the Southeast Asian transboundary haze problem

     · 2019  ~  Kang, et al.  ~  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

     · Seasonal haze carried by wind has exacerbated symptoms such as sore throat, dry mouth, nose

       discomfort, eye discomfort, headache, shortness of breath and skin irritation. In some cases, it is also

       linked to psychological stress in Singapore.

     · More severe health effects of seasonal haze include an increased mortality rate, increased correlation

       to cardiovascular diseases, and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease.

     · While all these correlations are discussed, not all have been explained.

Environmental cooperation of Northeast Asia: Transboundary air pollution

     · 2007  ~  Inkoung Kim  ~   International Relations of the Asia-Pacific

     · Uses an international relations lens to investigate why environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia is

       less successful than in Europe (specifically with their approach to acid rain).

     · The slow progress in cooperation between Northeast Asian countries can be attributed to two main

       factors: (1) no agreement among the countries in the region regarding the ecological susceptibility to

       transboundary acid deposition, (2) the high expenses involved in reducing emissions.

     · Notes that Japan, as a leading country in Asia, doesn't have expert communities on this issue, which

       might be hindering the progress of the entire region.

Modelling transboundary air pollution in Southeast Asia: Policy regime and the role of stakeholders

     · 2004  ~  Asif Iqbal Siddiqui and Euston Quah  ~  Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space

     · Transboundary air pollution—or haze—in Southeast Asia is caused primarily by Indonesian forest fires,

       driven by economic motivations.

     · The polluters and victims (affected residents and forest industries) are important stakeholders who should

       actively participate in developing policies that satisfy their economic needs while addressing the haze problem.

     · A regional model is developed to analyze and address the issue, highlighting the importance of investment

       in firefighting, risk mitigation, and weather forecasting.

Pollution: Gasping for Solutions

Transboundary air pollution (TBAP) in Asia

Contents of this page:

     · International organizations

       · Institutions

         · Air quality monitoring    

           · Select readings on TBAP in Asia

Raquel Feldman of Brandeis University contributed to this page in 2023.