A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



Institutions ~ International initiatives

BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL)

Bonn Challenge

     · "A global effort to bring 150 million hectares of deforested and degraded land into

     restoration by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030."

Forest & Climate Leaders' Partnership (FCLP)

Lowering Emissions by Accelerating Forest finance (LEAF) Coalition (Tree Water and Carbon monitoring Network)

WeForest: Making Earth Cooler

Institutions ~ REDD+

     · REDD+ stands for Reduction in Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

          (+ represents sustainable forestry)    

UN-REDD Programme

     Collaborative Workspace

     Flagship Knowledge

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

     Warsaw Framework for REDD-plus

Code REDD*

CIFOR Global Comparative Study on REDD+

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) @ World Bank


·      "The Global Canopy Programme’s Internet platform – the REDD Desk – was launched

        in late 2009 as a centralised and collaborative knowledge platform to disseminate

        information on REDD+ readiness."

REDD+ Web Platform


REDD+ @ Global Forest Atlas






REDD+ @ Wikipedia

REDDX: Tracking Forest Finance @ Forest Trends

EU REDD Facility

Voluntary REDD+ Database

Germanys REDD Early Movers (REM) Programme

Governors Climate & Forests (GCF) Task Force

Norways International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI)

USAIDs Sustainable Landscapes

What is REDD+? [Video]

Select readings on forests & climate change

     · In reverse chronological order

Tree regeneration in models of forest dynamics: Suitability to assess climate change impacts on European forests

     · 2022 ~ Louis König et al. ~ Forest Ecology and Management

     · Europe's forests are becoming effected by climate change sooner than hypothesized

     · Regeneration of forests comprises the largest potential to adapt to the changing environmental

       conditions, but young forests are especially sensitive to climate change

How do REDD+ projects contribute to the goals of the Paris Agreement?

     · 2022  ~  Atmadja et al.  ~  IOP Science

     · REDD+ projects would need to be upscaled >40 of numbers to fulfill the potential contribution of

       tropical and subtropical forests towards limiting global warming to <2 C. Peru and Indonesia finds

       divergence between carbon accounting parameters used at the national and project scale.

     · As part of the Paris Agreement, countries should improve their accounting practices to eliminate

       double counting across accounting scales. This implies harmonizing carbon accounting methods

       with REDD+ projects and avoiding a perpetual game of catch-up between different scales.

     · REDD+ projects are first movers: they act early, take financial risks, follow standards, and access

       financing from the private sector in the voluntary carbon market.

How trees and forests reduce risks from climate change

     · 2021  ~  Lisa Palmer  ~  Nature Climate Change

     · New forests capture substantial amounts of carbon

     · Regrowing forests is a low-cost way to effectively reduce the impacts of climate change

     · By ensuring that appropriate tree species are used in reforestation, harm to these ecosystems can be reduced

Characterizing forest vulnerability and risk to climate-change hazards

     · 2021  ~  Judit Lecina-Diaz et al.  ~  Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment

     · Presents a general framework based on hazard magnitude, widely used concepts of exposure,

       susceptibility, and lack of adaptive capacity for evaluating risk of forests

     · Wildfires, drought, pests, and windstorms are the four primary climate change related hazards to forests

Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: REDD+

     · 2020  ~  Charlene Watson & Liane Schalatek  ~  Climate Fund Update

     · REDD+ has the potential to significantly reduce emissions, but securing financing has been difficult

       due to issues related to MRV and concerns around land tenure and governance.

     · Various sources of finance for REDD+ include public, private, and innovative finance mechanisms,

       but financing needs to be aligned with national development priorities and strategies.

     · International cooperation is crucial in supporting REDD+ financing, and developed countries need

       to fulfill their commitments to provide financial support to developing countries.

The global tree restoration potential

     · 2019  ~  Bastin, et al.  ~  Science

     · Earth has room for an additional 0.9 billion hectares of canopy cover, which could potentially store

       205 gigatons of carbon and help mitigate climate change.

     · Six countries, including Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, and China, were identified

       as having the greatest potential for tree restoration, with over 50% of the potential restoration areas

       located in these countries.

     · Prioritizing restoration efforts in areas that can provide the most benefits, such as improving biodiversity,

       enhancing ecosystem services, and supporting local communities.

Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action

     · 2018 ~ M.J. Klapwijk et al. ~ Global Environmental Change

     · Managed forests are important carbon sinks but harnessing their full potential has proven to be difficult.

     · Identifies the main research areas concerned with managed forests in terms of climate change

       mitigation and the obstacles involved in decision making.

The impacts of climate change and disturbance on spatiotemporal trajectories of biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape

     · 2017  ~  Klaus Katzensteiner, et al.  ~  Journal of Applied Ecology

     · Disturbances are climate sensitive and will intensify with the increasing climate changes

     · Increasing disturbance frequency and severity in temperate forests can be positive for biodiversity

       but increasing the disturbance size has a negative effect.

Forest Disturbance Under Climate Change

     · 2017  ~  Seidl, et al.  ~  Nature Climate Change

     · The effects of climate change, including fires, insect outbreaks, and drought, have a potential impact

       on forest disturbance and subsequent effects on forest ecosystems and their associated services.

     · Developing effective management strategies that can promote the resilience of forest ecosystems is crucial.

     · Adaptive management approaches are important for responding to changing conditions and uncertainties

       associated with future climate change.

Climate change impacts and adaptation in forest management: A review

     · 2017 ~ Rodney J.Keenan ~ Annals of Forest Science

     · Climate change is already affecting forests and is likely to have increasingly significant impacts in the future.

     · Forest managers will need to adapt their practices to address these changes using a range of strategies.

     · Effective forest management adaptation requires ongoing research and monitoring, as well as

       consideration of the social and economic implications of management decisions.

Carbon sequestration: Managing forests in uncertain times

     · 2014, Valentin Bellassen & Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Nature

     · More research is needed on how carbon sinks in forests work in order to determine whether we should harvest or conserve trees.

     · Until this information is certain, forestry management should prioritize both increasing stocks of timber and natural forest.

     · Techniques to be implemented include planting more resilient trees, protecting young sprouts,

       and optimizing fertilizer youth to manage tree growth.

Adapting forestry and forests to climate change: A challenge to change the paradigm

     · 2012, Dieter H.F. Schoene & Pierre Y. Bernier, Forest Policy and Economics

     · Climate change will inevitably alter forest ecosystems, increase the risk of forest disturbances,

       allow for new gaps in knowledge to emerge, and increase the worth of forest carbon.

     · Planned adaptation of forests, including changes in the legislature, in human behavior, and in

       organizing is needed to deal with the effects of climate change.

Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests

     · 2008, Gordon B. Bonan, Science

     · The world's forests' interactions with the atmosphere can either increase or diminish the effects of anthropogenic climate change.

     · Forests are able to store a large percentage of terrestrial carbon in the form of carbon sequestration.

     · The ability for forests to sequester carbon goes down as temperatures rise with global warming.

Managing Forests for Climate Change Mitigation

     · 2008, Josep G. Canadell, Science

     · Reforestation is required in order to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions.

     · Looks at how carbon density and an increase in forest biomass can be increased to mitigate carbon emissions.

     · Discusses the economic potential of preventing deforestation and increasing the capacity of forests to store more carbon.

The Role for Sustainably Managed Forests in Climate Change Mitigation

     · 2007, Steven Ruddell et al., Journal of Forestry

     · As a result of the U.S. not ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, forests are not able to act collectively as

       an international greenhouse gas emission offset project.

     · The U.S. needs to develop national standards for the registration and trading of forest carbon sequestration projects.

     · Sustainably managed forests are able to sequester more carbon over time than unmanaged forests.

Contents of this page:

     · Institutions:

            ~ International initiatives

            ~ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation & Forest Degradation (REDD+)

       · Select readings on forests & climate change

Also see:

     · Climate change & forests @ USA forests

This page focuses on the effects of climate change on forests as well as forest carbon sequestration, which

   includes coverage of REDD+. Many—if not most—of the resources listed on the Forests page (particularly

   International agreements & declarations) contain extensive focus on "climate change & forests" as well.

Forests & climate change (including REDD+)

This page focuses on many forms of forest carbon sequestration, including:

· Reforestation: "planting trees

     or entire forests on terrain

     that used to contain them"

· Aforestation: "the process of

    planting trees, or sowing

    seeds, in a barren land devoid

    of any trees to create a


· Proforestation: "growing

    existing forests intact to their

    ecological potential"

Mia Levine & Kai Tang (2023) and Karalyn Morin (2022) of Brandeis University contributed to this page.