A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment




     · This is a very partial listing of organizations that voice a signficant level of

       doubt regarding the reality of anthropogenic climate change. A much

       fuller listing can be found at SourceWatch.

Alliance for Wise Energy Decisions

American Energy Alliance (AEA)

Americans for Prosperity

     Climate change page

     EPI page

Capital Research Center (CRC)

     Climate change

     Climate Dollars

Clear Energy Alliance

     · Not working as of 2023-03-22

Climate Intelligence Foundation (CLINTEL)

     · In Dutch

CO2 Coalition

Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow (CFACT)

Competitive Enterperprise Institute (CEI)  

     Cooler Heads Coalition/


     DeSmogBlog entry

European Institute for Climate and Energy (EIKE)


     · Not working as of 2023-03-22

     · "...a Jackson, Mississippi based 501(c)(4) non-profit educational organization

         dedicated to informing the public about the environmental and economic gains

         made under the Trump Administration."

Energy in Depth (EID)

        · "a research program of the Independent Petroleum Association of America...

     Energy In Depth – Climate and Environment, is focused on getting the facts out

     about the coordinated effort to bring frivolous lawsuits against oil and gas

     producers for climate related concerns."

Freedom Partners

     · Not working as of 2023-03-22

     American Energy

Global Warming Policy Foundation

     DeSmog site

Global Warming Solved

Heartland Institute

     · From the homepage, click on "Our Sites" in the top navigation menu for

       climate change links.

     Arthur B. Robinson Center for Climate and Environmental Policy

Heritage Foundation

        · Energy Economics

        · Nuclear Energy

        · Renewable Energy

        · Coal, Oil, Natural Gas

Institute for Energy Research

     · Desmog entry

     · Sourcewatch entry     ·

          · "...founded in 1989 from a predecessor non-profit organization registered by

               Charles G. Koch and Robert L. Bradley Jr., advocates positions on

                environmental issues including deregulation of utilities, climate change

               denial, and claims that conventional energy sources are virtually limitless.”

Minnesotans for Global Warming

     · Not working as of 2023-03-22

Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change

Principia Scientific International

Spark of Freedom Foundation

Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF)

     Energy & environment



Climate Cult

     · Not updated since 2013, but contains links to a range of climate denial websites.

Climate Depot


Daily Signal Energy

     · Sponsored by the Heritage Foundation

Friends of Science

Global Climate Scam

Global Warming Policy Forum [UK]

Kids Guide to the Truth About Climate Change

Science & Environmental Policy Project

Watts up with that?

     · This website is monitored by the site: Wott's up with that?

World Climate Report

Social media



Climate Hustle

Great Global Warming Swindle [Wikipedia site]

Where the grass is greener 2


Climate Audit

     · Blog of Steve McIntyre

Climate Etc.

     · Blog of Judith Curry

Real Climate Science

Select readings on climate change denialism

Socioeconomic roots of climate change denial and uncertainty among the European population

     · 2021  ~  Christiane Lübke  ~  European Sociological Review

     · Examines the denial of anthropogenic climate change and uncertainty about the anthropogenic

       source of climate change in Western countries

     · Examines the socioeconomic roots of uncertainty and denial of climate change using European

       Social Survey data at country, regional, and individual levels

     · Finds that rural areas and areas with insecure economic futures or reliance on fossil fuels are

       more likely to have residents who deny climate change or doubt its anthropogenic causes

Rhetoric and frame analysis of ExxonMobil's climate change communications

     · 2021  ~  Geoffrey Supran and Naomi Oreskes  ~  One Earth

     · Examines 180 ExxonMobil communications including peer reviewed studies, advertorials, and

       internal documents to summarize the rhetorical framing done by ExxonMobil to downplay the

       significance of climate change

     · Uses rhetorical techniques to frame CO2 emissions as an individual responsibility, and downplays

       the effects of CO2 emissions on the climate

     · Compares the ExxonMobil strategy to that of tobacco companies, which deemphasized harm

       while shifting the responsibility of harm due to smoking onto consumers

Online misinformation about climate change

     · 2020  ~  KMI Treen  ~  WIREs Climate Change

     · Focuses on climate change misinformation and its links to skepticism and denial, examining how,

       why, and where it is spread

     · Network of actors finance, produce, and distribute information online, where information is then

       spread through online social networks

     · Characteristics of social networks including polarization and echo chambers amplify and spread

       disinformation online

Seepage: Climate change denial and its effect on the scientific community

     · 2015 ~ Stephan Lewandowsky et al. ~ Global Environmental Change     

     · Scientific uncertainty is often used to prevent action on climate change within political and social


     · Propagation of scientific uncertainty relating to climate denial can spill into the scientific community

     · This is caused in part by the weakening of boundaries between public and professional debate in

       scientific communities

     · Scientists often shift research and peer reviewing to respond to this non-scientific uncertainty,

       appearing to legitimize unfounded claims

Living in denial: Climate change, emotions, and everyday life

     · 2011  ~  Kari Marie Norgaard  ~  MIT Press

     · Examines climate denial through a sociological lens by interviewing residents of rural western Norway

       during the above average temperature winter of 2000 – 2001

     · During this time, ice fishing was impossible, snow came 2 months late, and ski areas had to invest in

       artificial snow

     · Despite climate change being accepted as a fact in this community, socially organized denial allowed

       a disconnect between the facts and political and social realities – residents didn't directly connect the

       events of that winter with climate change

Assessing climate change denialism

The following institutions, websites, and initiatives aim to expose climate change obfuscation in its many forms.

Center for Countering Digital Hate

   Climate Change Misinformation

Center for Media and Democracy (CMD)

   ALEC Exposed

   Exposed by CMD     



Center for Studies of Climate Change Denialism


Climate Accountability Scorecard @ UCS

   · "An in-depth analysis of eight major fossil fuel

     companies finds they continue to spread

     climate disinformation and have failed to

     adequately plan their businesses for a

     low-carbon world."

Climate Denial Crock of the Week with Peter Sinclair


   · "The DeSmogBlog Project began in January 2006

     and quickly became the world’s number one

     source for accurate, fact based information

     regarding global warming misinformation



   · Podcast series on climate denial perpetrated by

     the fossil fuel industry.


     Exposing Climate Deniers

Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD)

     Climate disinformation

Skeptical Science

...and then there's physics [blog]

Climate change denialism & lukewarmism

Including backlash, contrarianism, criticism, obfuscation & “skepticism.”

Contents of this page:

     · Institutions

       · Websites

         · Social media

           · Films

             · Blogs

               · Select readings on climate change denialism

Also see the Environmental backlash, criticism page.




& Summary

Keyan Li of Brandeis University contributed to this page in 2023.