A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment




Carbon Pricing 101 @ UCS

Carbon Pricing Watch 2016

Institutions ~ General

Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition

     Report of the High-Level Commission on Carbon Prices

Climate Leadership Council

     · Focus on climate dividends

Climate Markets & Investment Association (CMIA)

International Carbon Action Partnership (ICAP)

     · “ international forum for governments and public authorities that have implemented or

       are planing to implement emissions trading systems (ETS).”

International Emissions Trading Association (IETA)

Institutions ~ Emissions trading systems

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)

California Cap and Trade Program

European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme ~ Legal point of view

Western Climate Initiative

Institutions ~ Private sector

Carbon Cap Management LLP

     World Carbon Fund

Carbon markets

Global Carbon Markets Data Intelligence and Analytics Dashboard @ Ecosystem Marketplace

Carbon taxes

Carbon Tax Center

Carbon tax basics @ C2ES

Climate XChange

What is a carbon tax? @ TPC

Border carbon adjustments & embedded emissions (imported/exported emissions)

Border carbon adjustments @ Brookings

Border carbon adjustments @ C2ES

Border carbon adjustments @ Climate strategies

Border carbon adjustments @ RFF

Mapped: The world's largest CO2 importers and exporters @ Carbon Brief

Select readings on carbon pricing

     · In reverse chronological order.

Is carbon trading the next step towards decarbonization?

     · 2022  ~  Pedro Ahlers  ~  World Economic Forum

     · Gives an insight of what carbon trading is and the market mechanisms behind it.

     · Presents the importance of the private sector's role in making carbon trading effective through reducing carbon emissions.

     · Presents how new business models for carbon trading will emerge in the future

     · Describes the challenges of carbon trading in the new markets.

A clean innovation comparison between carbon tax and cap-and-trade system

     · 2020  ~  You-hua Chen, et. al.  ~  Energy Strategy Reviews

     · Companies typically lose money under carbon taxes

     · Effects of cap-and-trade system on profits are uncertain

Carbon pricing: Effectiveness and equity

     · 2018  ~  James K. Boyce  ~  Ecological Economics

     · Presents the viewpoint that carbon pricing is ineffective in solving the root causes of carbon emissions, such as fossil fuel consumption.

     · Argues that carbon pricing alone is insufficient and should be combined with policies to bring long term success with emission reductions.

     · Explains how carbon dividends can both reduce and create inequality between different households

       based on how much carbon footprint they leave.

Carbon pricing and deep de-carbonization

     · 2018  ~  Tvinnereim, Endre, and Michael Mehling  ~  Energy Policy

     · Deep de-carbonization may not be attained through carbon pricing alone

     · Carbon lock-in

     · Phasing in innovation, phasing out obsolete technologies

Carbon Pricing: Effectiveness and Equity

     · 2018, Boyce, James K, Ecological Economics

     · Carbon price can be implemented via a tax or a cap on emissions

     · Carbon taxes are intended to incentive companies to implement new, more sustainable policies

        and infrastructure; relatively low-cost changes would be less costly than the tax

Carbon pricing versus emissions trading: A supply chain planning perspective

     · 2015, Zakeri, Atefe, et al., International Journal of Production Economics

     · Linked environmental regulatory policies to internal SC planning practice

     · Inflection points where certain policies or practices could more meaningfully influence costs or emissions reductions

Implementing a US Carbon Tax: Challenges and Debates

     · 2015, Morris, Adele, and Williams III, Roberton C., Taylor & Francis

     · Failure of the 2009 federal Trading System (ETS)

     · Reformation of power sector and transportation policies

     · Effect of a carbon tax on the US's GDP growth rate

Towards global carbon pricing: Direct and indirect linking of carbon markets

     · 2014  ~  Rob Dellink, et al.  ~  OCED Journal: Economic Studies

     · Presents carbon pricing as one of the most effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

     · Explains the benefits and challenges of linking carbon pricing across different countries using data and graphs.

     · Strongly advocates for international cooperation to link emissions trading schemes in order to

       reduce the cost of international climate mitigation action.

Carbon markets: Past, present, and future

     · 2014  ~  Richard G. Newell, et al.  ~  Annual Review of Resource Economics

     · Explains the policy design of carbon markets, and the potential limitations of implementing them.

     · Presents surveys regarding carbon trading to show that carbon marketing is evolving.

     · Highlights the importance of international institutions in supporting and addressing the challenges of carbon marketing.

Carbon taxes: A review of experience and policy design considerations

     · 2009 ~ Jenny Sumner, Lori Bird and Hillary Smith ~ National Renewable Energy Laboratory

     · Presents the importance of proper carbon tax policies.

     · Explains how carbon taxes should be integrated with other carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

     · Claims that carbon tax revenues can be used to promote actions for decarbonization.

Combating global climate change: Why a carbon tax is a better response to global warming than cap and trade

     · 2009, Avi-Yonah et. al, Stanford Environmental Law Journal

     · Advantages of carbon tax: simplicity and revenues

     · Disadvantages of carbon tax: tax exemptions and political resistance

Making sense of the voluntary carbon market: A comparison of carbon offset standards

     · 2008, Kollmuss, Anja, Helge Zink, and Clifford Polycarp, WWF Germany

     · Carbon offsets are either compliance schemes or voluntary programs

     · Voluntary offset markets function outside of the compliance markets

     · Compliance markets are created and regulated by mandatory regional, national, and international carbon reduction regimes

This page includes coverage of climate dividends & carbon cap-&-trade systems.

Contents of this page:

     · Information

       · Institutions

              ~ General

              ~ Emissions trading systems

              ~ Private sector

         · Carbon markets

           · Carbon taxes

             · Border carbon adjustments & embedded emissions (exported/imported emissions)

               · Select readings on carbon pricing

Carbon pricing: Taxes, markets & emissions trading systems

Rui Miura (2023) & Katerina McWilliam (2021) of Brandeis University contributed to this page.