A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



Environmental hub > Environmental & ecological economics >

Contents of this page:

   · Definitions & overviews of ecosystem services

     · General information

       · Periodicals

         · Institutions:

               ~ Focal international organizations & initiatives

               ~ General international organizations & initiatives

               ~ Government agencies

               ~ NGOs & initiatives

           · Payments for ecosystem services (PES)

             · Pollination

               · Key documents

                 · Select readings on “ecosystem disservices”

Definitions & overviews of ecosystem services

· Also see entries under Institutions below

@ Biodiversity Information System for Europe

@ Encyclopedia Britannica

@ GreenFacts


@ Wikipedia

General information

Biodiversity Information System for Europe

     Ecosystem services categories

     Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES)

Ecosystem Services Valuation Database

     Ecosystem Services Toolkit


     · “LandPKS stands for Land Potential Knowledge System. Land potential is defined as the inherent,

        long-term potential of the land to sustainably generate ecosystem services. Land Potential at any

        location depends on the type of soil, topography, and climate.”

Public Planet Partnerships

Selected references on ecosystem services @ Duke Nicholas Institute


Ecosystem Services

Institutions ~ Focal international organizations & initiatives

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Network (BES-Net)

IPBES ~ Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

   · Conceptual framework

   · Open-Ended Network of IPBES Stakeholders (ONet)

Institutions ~ General international organizations & initiatives

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

   · "The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was called for by the United Nations Secretary-General

     Kofi Annan in 2000. Initiated in 2001, the objective of the MA was to assess the consequences of

     ecosystem change for human well-being and the scientific basis for action needed to enhance the

     conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. The

     MA has involved the work of more than 1,360 experts worldwide. Their findings, contained in five

     technical volumes and six synthesis reports, provide a state-of-the-art scientific appraisal of the condition

     and trends in the world’s ecosystems and the services they provide (such as clean water, food, forest

     products, flood control, and natural resources) and the options to restore, conserve or enhance the

     sustainable use of ecosystems."

FAO ~ Food & Agriculture Organization

   · Ecosystem services


   · Ecosystem services & Biodiversity

   · Report: A Gateway to payments for ecosystem services


   · Payment for Ecosystem Services

UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)

     National Ecosystem Assessment Initiative (NEA Initiative)

Institutions: Government agencies

Ecosystem services @ UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UKNEA)

Ecosystem services @ US Forest Service (USFS)

Federal Resource Management and Ecosystem Services Guidebook [USA]

Institutions: NGOs & initiatives

Ecosystems Marketplace @ Forest Trends

Ecosystem Services Partnership (ESP)

    · Ecosystem Services Valuation Database

     · "Worldwide network to enhance the science, policy and practice of ecosystem services for

     conservation and sustainable development"

The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity (TEEB)

     · "...a global initiative focused on 'making nature’s values visible'. Its principal objective is to

     mainstream the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decision-making at all levels.

     It aims to achieve this goal by following a structured approach to valuation that helps decision-

     makers recognize the wide range of benefits provided by ecosystems and biodiversity,

     demonstrate their values in economic terms and, where appropriate, capture those values in


National Ecosystem Services Partnership [US]

     · “ initiative of Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions and was

        developed with support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and donations of expertise

        and time from many public and private institutions.”

     · Federal Resource Management and Ecosystem Services Guidebook

Natural Capital Coalition

Natural Capital Project

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES)


PES @ Ecosystem Marketplace

PES @ Farm and Energy Initiative

PES @ Global Forest Atlas




PES @ UN Development Programme (UNDP)

PES @ Wikipedia

PES Database @ GEF

     · Landing page available but link to database nonfunctional as of May 2022.


    · Fripp, Emily. 2014. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES): A practical guide to assessing the feasibility of PES projects. CIFOR.

    · Smith, Steven, et al. 2013. Payments for ecosystem services: A best practice guide. DEFRA.


Bee City USA

Bee Informed Partnership

Chattanooga Area Pollinator Partnership [Tennessee, USA]

Insect Pollinators Initiative [UK]

Pollinator conservation @ USGS

Pollinator Partnership

Key documents

US Army Corps of Engineers. 1972. Charles River, Massachusetts: Main report & attachments. Deptartment of the Army, New England Division. [link to pdf]

Select readings on “ecosystem disservices”

Blanco, Julien, et al. 2019. Ecosystem disservices matter: Towards their systematic integration within ecosystem service research and policy. Ecosystem Services 36, 100913.

Döhren, Peer von, & Dagmar Haase. 2015. Ecosystem disservices research: A review of the state of the art with a focus on cities. Ecological Indicators 52, 490-497.

Dunn, Robert R. 2010. Global Mapping of Ecosystem Disservices: The Unspoken Reality that Nature Sometimes Kills us. Biotropica 42, no. 5: 555-557.

Shackleton, C. M., S. et al. 2016. Unpacking Pandora’s Box: Understanding and Categorising Ecosystem Disservices for Environmental Management and Human Wellbeing. Ecosystems 19, no. 4: 587-600.

Wu, Shuyao, et al.. 2021. Classifying ecosystem disservices and valuating their effects: A case study of Beijing, China. Ecological Indicators 129, 107977.

Yam, RS, et al. 2015. An ecosystem-service approach to evaluate the role of non-native species in urbanized wetlands. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12, no. 4: 3926-3943.

Ecosystem services & Nature's Contributions to People (NCPs)





& Summary