A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



Ecosystem approach & AbC hub >

Contents below:

     · Databases & listings

       · General information

         · Periodicals

           · Institutions

                  ~ International organizations & initiatives

                  ~ Science & research

                  ~ Professional associations

                  ~ NGOs

              · World heritage

                · Climate change & protected areas

Also see:

     · Protected areas @ Indigenous peoples       

       · Biodiplomacy, where the majority of institutions & initiatives listed cover PAs, AbC & habitat conservation

Databases & listings

IUCN Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas

     · "...the first global standard of best practice for area-based conservation. It is a programme of certification

          for protected and conserved areas – national parks, natural World Heritage sites, community

          conserved areas, nature reserves and so on – that are effectively managed and fairly governed."

Protected Areas Data Portal @ National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) @ USGS

     · A complete overview of the US protected areas data with full access.

Protected Planet

     · The public portal of the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), "the most

           comprehensive global database of marine and terrestrial protected areas, updated on

          a monthly basis, and is one of the key global biodiversity data sets being widely used

          by scientists, businesses, governments, International secretariats and others to inform

          planning, policy decisions and management" (see About).

    · From a global persepective, this site is the "most comprehensive"—a great place to start.

Terrestrial protected areas @ World Bank data

General information


LandScope @ NatureServe

Protected area categories @ IUCN

Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD)

     · Project of Conservation International

     · Beta site: PADDDtracker

Protected areas @ CBD

Sounds of your Park



       · IUCN site

       · Journal site

Parks Stewardship Forum

     · Academic site

     · Public site

Institutions ~ International organizations & initiatives

Biodiversity and Protected Areas Management Programme (BIOPAMA)


     World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA)

Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA)

     KBA Secretariat

     KBA Partnership

     · “Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are the most important places in the world for species and their

        habitats. Faced with a global environmental crisis we need to focus our collective efforts on

        conserving the places that matter most. The KBA Programme supports the identification, mapping,

        monitoring and conservation of KBAs to help safeguard the most critical sites for nature on our

        planet – from rainforests to reefs, mountains to marshes, deserts to grasslands and to the deepest

        parts of the oceans.”

Panorama: Inspiring Protected Area Solutions

Institutions ~ Science & research institutions

Berkeley Institute for Parks, People, and Biodiversity

Center for Protected Area Management (CPAM) @ CSU

Institutions ~ Professional associations

George Wright Society

Natural Areas Association

Institutions ~ NGOs

National Park Rescue

World Heritage

World Heritage Convention & Centre @ UNESCO

     · “UNESCO seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural

         and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity."

World Heritage Outlook  

Climate change & protected areas

Climate Adaptation Methodology for Protected Areas (CAMPA)

Natural solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change

     · Hosted by the IUCN

Protected areas and climate change

     · WWF initiative focusing on the Amazon

Spatial Planning for Protected Areas in Response to Climate Change (SPARC)

     · CI page

     · GEF page

Protected areas (PAs)

The IUCN defines protected area as “...a clearly defined geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed,through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values.”

For information on specific protected areas, see Protected Planet.


Ran Wei of Brandeis University developed this page in 2019.