A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



General information

Climate change refugees @ Green Cross Australia

Climate Refugee Overview @ National Geographic Society

Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios (EACH-FOR)   

Institutions ~ International organizations

   · Institutions that work on mitigating and stopping the climate refugee crisis as well as resources

     for specific projects.

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

     Task Force on Displacement

UN High Commisioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

     What is a refugee?

     Climate change & displacement

UN International Organization for Migration (IOM)

     Migration, environment and climate change

     Environmental Migration Portal

          · Database on the current environmental refugee crises, recent studies published by relevant

          organizations, profiles on the environmental refugee activity in specific countries, and policy briefs,

          explanations, and general information.

UN Migration Network

     Global Compact for Migration (GCM)

     CLIMB Database

           · "Human Mobility in the Context of Disasters, Climate Change and Environmental Degradation


UN University Migration Network

     Migration and environment

World Bank Refugee Projects

Institutions ~ Research & info

Crisis & Environment

     · “...aim is to look in to the environmental consequences and pressure that the Syrian crisis

       and refugee situation has on the countries that have received, and are currently hosting,

       large amounts of refugees.”

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)

     Disasters and Climate Change

Kaldor Center for International Refugee Law

Migration Policy Institute

     Climate Change and Migration Dynamics

     Migration information Source ~ Special issue on climate change  

     Changing Climate, Changing Migration podcast

Wilson Center

     Enironmental Refugees

Institutions ~ NGOs & initiatives

Climate and Migration Coalition

Climate Migrants and Refugees Project

Climate Change, Environment and Migration Alliance (CCEMA)

      · Appears to be defunct (link is to a description of the project)

Climate Refugees

     · Founded 2015

     · Provides consistent and recent updates on current climate refugee migrations

     · Raises awareness on climate refugees through the medium of storytelling (personal, on-the-ground

        reporting), campaigns, and actions

Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) Climate Campaign

Nansen Initiative

Island, coastal & ocean-based migration

     · Also see Sea level rise page.

Kiribati: Relocation Action Page

Tuvalu - Climate Change and Migration (UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security)

Climate Change Migration (UN Sustainable Development)

Arctic Climate Displacement and Migration

Climate Change and Migration: A Case Study from Rural Bangladesh

Haiti - Climate Change & Natural Disasters (IOM)

Documentary films

Climate Refugees

Select readings on climate & environmental refugees

     · In reverse chronological order

Forced displacement and climate change: Time for global governance

     · 2020 ~ Rosemary McCarney, Jonathen Kent ~ International Journal

     · Policy brief that emphasizes the need for swift and effective global governance concerning

        forced displacement due to onset effects of climate change

     · Stresses Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) commitments and adaptation practices

     · Climate refugees are not a developed vs. developing issue—the most vulnerable are at risk regardless of these distinctions

The climate crisis, migration, and refugees

     · 2019, John Podesta, Brookings

     · This article discusses how extreme weather events of unprecedented severity are occurring increasingly

       frequently in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America compared to wealthy regions such as

       New Zealand, Australia, and parts of the US

     · Highlights specific instances when climate change was considered the sole factor for forced migration,

       citing the example of 12 inch sea level rise in the Pacific Islands as one, drought and desertification West

       Africa as another, and cyclones in Asia as a third

The People of the Isle de Jean Charles Are Louisiana’s First Climate Refugees—but They Won’t Be the Last

     · 2019 ~ Robynne Boyd ~ Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)

     · Important example of climate refugees in the setting of the “Global North”

     · Severe land loss due to sea level rise is displacing an Indigenous community that was forcibly relocated to the Isle in the 1830s

Why Climate Migrants do not have Refugee Status

     · 2018 ~ Economist

New Zealand Proposes Humanitarian Visa for ‘Climate Refugees.’

     · Randall, Alex. 2017. The Diplomat

The Atlas of Environmental Migration

     · 2017 ~ Ionesco, Dina, Mokhnacheva, Daria, Gemenne, François

Climate change, migration, and displacement: The underestimated disaster.

     · Bedarff, Hildegard, and Cord Jakobeit. 2017. Greenpeace Germany.

Migration, Displacement, and Climate Change

     · Adamo, Susana B. 2016.

     · Key document from UNGA Refugee Summit

From ‘fearing’ to ‘empowering’ climate refugees: Governing climate-induced migration in the name of resilience

     · 2015 ~ Chris Methmann, Angela Oels ~ Security Dialogue

     · The research article discusses the strange notion that climate migration is an acceptable form of climate adaptation/resilience

     · Climate refugees will need special, inarguable legal status as not all lands will be saved from sea level rise or other effects of climate change

Assessing the evidence: Migration, environment and climate change in Papua New Guinea

     · 2015. Naser, Mostafa. International Organization for Migration.

Brookings-LSE. 2014. Climate Change and Internal Displacement.

Martin, Susan. 2013. Environmental Change and Migration: What We Know.

Laczko, Frank, Aghazarm, Christine. 2009. Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence.

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Migration and Conflict.

     · 2008 ~ Raleigh, Clionadh, Jordan, Lisa, Salehyan, Idean

Understanding a slow disaster: Getting to grips with slow-onset disasters, and what they mean for migration and displacement

     · 2007 ~ Alex Randall ~ Climate and Migrant Coalition (founded by Climate Outreach

     · Provides two examples of disasters made worse by climate change, one rapid-onset disaster

       (Typhoon Haiyan, Philippines) and one slow-onset disaster (2011 Drought, Horn of Africa)

     · Explains human migrations worsened by climate change through variations of refugee movement patterns

Maya Haubrich (2022), Aaron Pins (2019) & Lissa Sangree-Calabrese (2018) of Brandeis University contributed this page.

Environmental & climate migration, refugees & IDPs

Contents of this page:

     · General Information

        · Institutions

               ~ International organizations

               ~ Research

               ~ NGOs & initiatives

          · Island, coastal, and ocean-based migration

            · Documentary films

              · Select readings on environmental & climate refugees

Environmental & climate refugees are defined as individuals who have been forced to leave their home countries due to environmental conditions or climatic changes that have made the areas where they previously lived inhospitable or highly undesirable.

Internally displaced people (IDPs) have not crossed a border, but have had to evacuate from their homes.