A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment



General information, ideas & approaches

Digital Library of the Commons @ IASC

ejolt [Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities and Trade] pages

     · Commons

     · Governing the commons

Global commons @ TED

Introduction to Common Pool Resource Theory

     · Compiled by Dr. Rebecca L. Gruby with input from commons scholars, September 2020

Tragedy of the Commons Game

The Wealth of the Commons

     · "A new collection of 73 essays that describe the enormous potential of the commons in

       conceptualizing and building a better future...."


International Journal of the Commons

     · “ interdisciplinary peer-reviewed open-access journal…dedicated to furthering the understanding of

     institutions for use and management of resources that are (or could be) enjoyed collectively.”

On the Commons Magazine

Institutions ~ International organizations

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

     Global Commons


     Global Commons

     Global Commons Alliance

Institutions ~ NGOs

Council on Foreign Relations

     Global Commons

Garrett Hardin Society

International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC)

     · "...devoted to bringing together multi-disciplinary researchers, practitioners and policymakers for the

     purpose of improving governance and management, advancing understanding, and creating sustainable

     solutions for commons, common-pool resources, or any other form of shared resource."

On the Commons (OTC)

     · "a commons movement strategy center founded in 2001"

Social-ecological systems

Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database

Select commentary on Garret Hardin's "Tragedy of the Commons"

     · Very much different from the notion of "the commons"—but also very much widely associated

     with it—is the problematic notion of the "tragedy of the commons." A very helpful bibliography

     is: Introduction to Common Pool Resource Theory, Compiled by Dr. Rebecca L. Gruby.

Amend, Alex. 2019. First as tragedy, then as fascism. The Baffler, September 26.

Cox, Susan Jane Buck. 1985. No tragedy of the commons. Environmental Ethics 7, no. 1: 49-61.

eJolt. Tragedy of the commons: Hardin's mistake.

Janssen, Marco A., Skaidra Smith-Heisters, Rimjhim Aggarwal, and Michael L. Schoon. 2019. ‘Tragedy of the commons’ as conventional wisdom in sustainability education. Environmental Education Research 25, no. 11: 1587-1604.

Hunter, Lori M., and Aseem Prakash. 2019. Hardin’s oversimplification of population growth. Nature Sustainability 2, 78-79.

Kestenbaum, David. 2009. Climate change is victim of ‘tragedy of the commons’. NPR Oregon Public Broadcasting, Morning Edition

Mildenberger, Matto. 2019. The tragedy of the tragedy of the commons. Scientific American, April 23.

On the Commons. No date. Celebrating the commons.

Patt, Anthony. 2017. Beyond the tragedy of the commons: Reframing effective climate change governance. Energy Research & Social Science 34, 1-3.

Webster, D. G. 2015. Beyond the tragedy in global fisheries. MIT Press.

Link to Hardin's 1968 paper in Science:

"The tragedy of the commons"

Alexa Daggett of Brandeis University developed this page in 2019.

The commons & common-pool resource management

Contents of this page:

     · General information

       · Periodicals

         · Institutions

                 ~ International organizations

                 ~ NGOs

           · Social-ecological systems (SES)

             · Select commentary on Garret Hardin's "Tragedy of the Commons"

This page provides resources and institutions covering the definitions, problems, and solutions concerning

   the commons—including the "global commons," of which there are, generally speaking, four complex

   international regimes (these links are mostly to respective pages):  

          · Atmosphere

            · Marine environment

              · Polar regions

                · Outer space

This page also contains information on Social-Ecological Systems (SES), defined as "complex, integrated

   systems in which humans are part of nature."*

The Bioprospecting page provides some information on genetic resources, which some consider a “global