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EarthWeb.info

A  web·guide to sustainable development, conservation & the glocal environment

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General information

Dangers of plastic pollution to marine life @ bottlestore.com

MarineDebris.info

Ocean Society: 7 Ways To Reduce Ocean Plastic Pollution

Ocean pollution and marine debris @ NOAA

Waste Shark @ Seaside Sustainability

World Ocean Day: Plastic Pollution Resources


Periodicals

Marine Pollution Bulletin


A/V, blogs & podcasts

The NOAA Ocean Podcast: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch


Institutions ~ International organizations

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

     Video: How IMO’s MARPOL Convention makes a difference

UN Environment (UNEP):

     · Ad hoc open-ended expert group on marine litter and microplastics

     · Clean Seas

             · Launched on social media in February 2017 "with the aim of engaging governments, the

          general public and the private sector in the fight against marine plastic pollution."     

     · Global Partnership on Marine Litter

Institutions ~ Government agencies

Marine Debris Program @ NOAA


Institutions ~ NGOs

4Ocean

     · Facilitates beach cleanups and offshore cleanups worldwide through the sale of bracelets (one

     bracelet pulls one pound of trash from the ocean).

5 Gyres Institute

A Plastic Planet

Coastal Care

     · Hosts the site plastic-pollution.org

Great Canadian Shoreline Cleanup

     · Get informed of plastic clean ups happening locally, or organize a team and lead a local clean up.

Ocean Cleanup

     · This organization’s primary goal is to use advanced technology to clean the oceans of trash. They are

      committed to a goal of clearing 50% of the Great Pacific trash island in 5 years.

Ocean Recovery Alliance

Plastic Oceans

     · Through film, global partnerships, and education, this organization is working to empower young entrepreneurs to find solutions to plastic

     pollution in the world’s oceans.  

Vancouver Aquarium:

     - Ocean Pollution Research Program

World Wildlife Fund Marine Pollution


Institutions ~ Industry & private sector

Preserve Ocean Plastic Initiative


Oil pollution

Video: Torrey Canyon: The shipwrecked supertanker


Marine plastic pollution ~ “Garbage patches”

Debris Free Oceans

Dive Against Debris @ ProjectAWARE

GarbagePatch.net

     · "Facts, pictures, and videos about the garbage patches."

Great Pacific Trash Island

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

   · “the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping

     and the prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships.”

North Atlantic Garbage Patch

Plastic Tide

     · Message on home page as of May 2019: "We are closing The Plastic Tide charity in its

          existing format. Watch out for the new charity we are creating in the coming weeks,

          with a more focused mission on the plastic pollution challenges.”

Plastic Waste Free Islands (PWFI)

Scientific programme 2018-2023 for Plastic in the Arctic

Universal Sea


Select readings on plastic pollution

     · In reverse chronological order

Extent and reproduction of coastal species on plastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

     · 2023 ~ Haram, L.E., Carlton, J.T., Centurioni, L. et al.  ~  Nature Ecology & Evolution

     · Floating plastic patches, such as the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, are being populated by coastal species

     · Plastic patches are creating conditions similar to coastlines, allowing species that usually live on

       the coast to populate the center of oceans as well.

Plastic debris forms: Rock analogues emerging from marine pollution

     · 2022  ~  Fernanda Avelar Santos, et al.  ~  Marine Pollution Bulletin

     · Analysis of new geological formation consisting of rock analogs composed of plastics

     · Plastic pollution has become so pervasive that it has begun affecting the Earth's geology

Plastic Pollution Solutions: Emerging Technologies to Prevent and Collect Marine Plastic Pollution

     · 2020 ~ Emma Schmaltz, et al. ~ Environment International

     · “Governments worldwide are increasingly adopting policies,” “nationwide bans,” and technologies that

        “focus on plastic pollution leakage prevention,” to find alternate solutions to help stop plastic pollution

Marine microfiber pollution: A review on present status and future challenges

     · 2019 ~ Sunanda Mishra, et al. ~ Marine Pollution Bulletin

     · Microfibers are small fibers from synthetic textiles

     · They present a large pollution issue, with about 2 million tons entering the ocean annually

A Catchment-Scale Perspective of Plastic Pollution

     · 2018 ~ Fredric M. Windsor, et al. ~ Global Change Biology

     · “We review the transport and effects of plastics across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments”

          as well as looks at how the “diverse processes are responsible for the observed ubiquity of plastic pollution.”

Plastic as a Persistent Marine Pollutant

     · 2017 ~ Boris Worm, Heike K. Lotze, Isabelle Jubinville, Chris Wilcox, & Jenna Jambeck ~ Annual Reviews

     · “Originally deemed harmless,” the effects of plastic in the marine environment were ignored until currently

        recognized as a “major environmental burden.”

     · Persistence of plastic continues to prevail as an issue because of their “very high molecular weight.”

The Garbage Patch In The Oceans: The Problem and Possible Solutions

     · 2011 ~ Marzia Sesini ~ Columbia University Earth Engineering Center

     · Garbage patches are “a concentration of marine debris in the ocean” which can cause problems

        such as “entanglement of marine fauna, plastic ingestion, transport of species to non-native waters,

        and concentration and transport of toxic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds”

     · Discusses multiple solutions including the “4Rs” of reduction, reuse, recycling, and recovery in local

        waste management which can help start promoting better behaviors.

Marine pollution

Contents of this page:

     · General information

       · Periodicals

         · A/V, podcasts & blogs

           · Institutions

                 ~ International organizations

                 ~ Government agencies

                 ~ NGOs

                 ~ Industry & private sector

             · Oil pollution

               · Marine plastic pollution & “garbage patches”

                 · Select readings on marine pollution

Also see Plastic pollution

Rebecca Spinner (2023), Elizabeth Korn (2021) & Candice Ji (2019) of Brandeis University developed this page.